A Concrete Step

After 2,000 years, a team of scientists have unearthed the secret recipe of the material that created some of the world’s most durable man-made structures: Roman concrete.

A mineral analysis of a sample of breakwater, dug up from the floor of Italy’s Pozzuoili Bay, dating back to 37 B.C., has revealed that the Romans made concrete by mixing lime and volcanic rock. Not only was this mixture inordinately sturdier than our modern blend, but its production was also enviably greener.


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